Jinan Banna, PhD, RD, CDN
Opal Vanessa Buchthal, DrPH
Socorro Tauyan, MPH
University of Hawaii at Manoa
To develop a Tagalog-language food behavior checklist (FBC) and evaluate its face validity.
Community centers, churches and other sites frequented by limited-resource Filipinos on Oâ€™ahu, Hawaiâ€™i.
A multi-step process was followed using qualitative procedures. First, a team of Filipino nutrition professionals translated text on an existing questionnaire from English to Tagalog, and a graphic designer created color photographs to accompany text. Cognitive testing was performed with the target population to determine acceptability of text and images. Subjects for cognitive testing were men (n=6) and women (n=14) 18 years or older in Hawaii who received or were eligible to receive benefits from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), self-identified as Filipino, and preferred Tagalog rather than English. Participants were recruited from churches, the Filipino Center on Oâ€™ahu and other community sites, and interviewed at the same locations. After modifications were completed based on participant suggestions, the team of professionals performed a final review. Readability was assessed using the Spache Readability algorithm for Tagalog.
A number of changes were made to text and images based on cognitive testing procedures, resulting in a tool acceptable to members of the target population and approved by an expert panel. Interviews revealed preferences for the use of specific terms to refer to food items, and ways in which text could be reduced while still retaining meaning. For example, in referring to â€œhabitsâ€, the word gawi was replaced with ugali, the preferred term in the target population. Image changes were made to reflect items most commonly consumed in the target population and the form in which they are typically consumed. For example, for an item focused on fruit and vegetable consumption, carrots were replaced with Okinawan sweet potatoes, and cucumber slices were pictured with the skin rather than without. The team of professionals agreed with participant suggestions. Assessment of readability of questionnaire text revealed a reading level of grade 5.9.
Study procedures yielded a Tagalog-language FBC found to have adequate face validity in the target population. Additional testing of the tool should be performed to assess convergent and factorial validity and reliability. Upon completion of further testing, this instrument may be used to evaluate the United States Department of Agricultureâ€™s nutrition education programs.